Amelogensis imperfecta

Amelogenesis imperfecta Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a congenital disorder which presents with a rare abnormal formation of the enamel or external layer of the crown of teeth, unrelated to any systemic or generalized conditions. Enamel is composed mostly of mineral, that is formed and regulated by the proteins in it. Amelogenesis imperfecta is due to the malfunction of the proteins in the enamel (ameloblastin, enamelin, tuftelin and amelogenin) as a result of abnormal enamel formation via amelogenesis. People afflicted with amelogenesis imperfecta may have teeth with abnormal color: yellow, brown or grey; this disorder can afflict any number of teeth of both dentitions. Enamel hypoplasia manifests in a variety of ways depending on the type of AI an individual has (see below), with pitting and plane-form defects common. The teeth have a higher risk for dental cavities and are hypersensitive to temperature changes as well as rapid attrition, excessive calculus deposition, and gingival hyperplasia. The earliest known case of AI is in an extinct hominid species called Paranthropus robustus, with over a third of individuals displaying this condition. Treatment Preventive and restorative dental care is very important as well as considerations for esthetic issues since the crown are yellow from exposure of dentin due to enamel loss. The main objectives of treatment is pain relief, preserving patient's remaining dentition, and to treat and preserve the patient's occlusal vertical height. Many factors are to be considered to decide on treatment options such as the classification and severity of AI, the patient's social history, clinical findings etc. There are many classifications of AI but the general management of this condition is similar. Full-coverage crowns are sometimes being used to compensate for the abraded enamel in adults, tackling the sensitivity the patient experiences. Usually stainless steel crowns are used in children which may be replaced by porcelain